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These are The 5 Worst Cases of Fire in The World Other Than California Fire

Forest fires that occur in the wild in addition to burning the surrounding trees but can also scorch the houses and agricultural land in the vicinity.

The cause of forest fires is lightning due to human activities such as arson. At the end of the 20th century, because of a large forest fire, our earth lost 25 million hectares of forest. These forest fires also impact global ecosystems with loss of biodiversity and increased carbon emissions. Forest fires are the biggest environmental disaster of all centuries. Here are the 5 Largest Forest Fires in History that hit the earth.

# Kalimantan Forest Fire

As a result of the prolonged drought in 1982-1983 triggered forest fires on the island of Kalimantan. In the event of this forest fire, 3.2 million forest land was destroyed in the fire with losses reaching more than Rp. 6 trillion. This forest fire has a significant impact on humans and other living creatures, considering that Kalimantan is one of the largest oxygen contributors in the world. It has a direct impact, economic impact, health impact, or social impact.

# Peshtigo Forest Fire, Wisconsin

The forest fire that occurred on October 8, 1871, in the forests of Peshtigo, Wisconsin, United States, burned more than 3.5 million hectares of forest land and killed 2,500 people in Wisconsin.

# Chelan Forest Fire, Oregon

The fire that originally originated from lightning in Chelan, Washington, continues to expand. Up to 10 American states, namely Oregon, Washington, California, Arizona, Texas, Idaho, Montana, Louisiana, Nevada, California, and North Carolina in 2015. And therefore, firefighters were added by 30 thousand people. Moreover, the National Fire Center noted that as many as 2.9 million hectares of the area burned. Also, 41,194 hotspots were found and burned 1,074 buildings. So urgent was the fire disaster that the US was asking for help from Australia to tame the red rooster. America also deployed its military to help the firefighters.

# California Fire, Los Angeles

The fire is widespread in southern California and has entered its third day on Wednesday, December 6, 2017, local time. As reported by CNN, new fires occurred near the elite Bel Air area and Interstate 405 road, which could cause more damage after the fire burned around 65 thousand or around 26,300 hectares. According to the latest data, the most damaged area due to the spread of this fire is Thomas Fire in Ventura County, which has consumed as much as 50 thousand acres or around 20 thousand hectares. This fire started in a rural area and spread to cities in southern California. This caused around 150 buildings to be damaged.

# Hinckley Forest Fire, Minnesota

The Hickley Fire is one of the largest forest fires, which burned a forest area of at least 810 km², possibly even more than 1000 km² and occurred on September 1, 1894, including the cities of Minnesota and Hinckley. This disaster claimed approximately hundreds of lives with an estimated minimum number of 418 deaths. However, some experts believe the actual number of deaths is close to nearly 800. If so, this fire is the second most deadly in Minnesota history after the Cloquet incident.

That's the five biggest fires in the world. Forest fires are a disaster for the diversity of living things. Countless numbers of extinct plant and animal species have been devoured by fire. Considering that forests are one of the biggest sources of oxygen on earth, it's good to start to have the awareness not to damage nature for the sake of humanity's survival.

Useful Tips for Traveling by Participating in Protecting the Environment

Traveling is something that needs to be done. At least after undergoing days filled with business and time-consuming scehdule. So take advantage of your free time to visit tourist attractions that can momentarily keep you away from the hustle and bustle of urban business. Yes, returning to nature after a long struggle with business in the crowd can be beneficial for you. However, it should be noted that visiting natural attractions is not just to satisfy our tourist desires. Nature also needs rewards after it has been exploited for our benefit. We also have to do something with which we can provide benefits to nature as well. One of the activities that can be done to thank nature that we enjoy for its beauty is by participating in the setting up.

Currently, the geothermal temperature has risen. This does not occur naturally, but there are factors where humans are the cause. Air pollution, for example, air pollution, contributes by reacting with the ozone layer, which has been protecting direct sunlight exposure to the earth. As a result, ozone protection for the planet from direct exposure to sunlight is not optimal, so that geothermal heat increases. This is called the greenhouse effect. One phenomenon that is a result of the greenhouse effect is the change of seasons, which are no longer healthy and can no longer be predicted. So, preserving nature is the only solution. For you tourists, even if it's just a visit, there are many small things that are simple but have a positive effect that can be done to contribute to preserving the nature around, especially the quality of the tourist attraction being visited.

Here are some tips for contributing to maintaining and protecting the environment while visiting natural attractions. Currently, there are many natural attractions that can be a choice of visit to enjoy your leisure time. However, it would be nice if the tour could be done while protecting the surrounding environment, especially the green nature, which becomes the "lung of the earth." How to? Check out the following tips.  

  1. Maintain Cleanliness

Beautiful nature, which is a tourist attraction that can be enjoyed by us, actually arises from the beauty and cleanliness of the environment. So, maintaining the purity of the environment during a tour is something that needs to be done so that the beauty of natural attractions is maintained. Maintaining cleanliness can be done with a minimum of not littering. Even better if you want to help clean up the scattered rubbish.  

  1. Contribute Through User Fees by Joining Some Eco-Green Community

Almost all natural attractions require a payment. Although it is better if it can be enjoyed for free, paying a levy can also be our participation to protect the environment. Because the actual taxes are one of which is budgeted to treat attractions by the authorities who manage a tourist attraction. Not only by paying authorities, but you can join some community like go green or what so ever. Therefore, you can prepare your travel fees from the money that you've made from those community.  

  1. Protect the Environment and Tourism Facilities

Protecting the environment is also our shared responsibility. Protecting the environment is also included in efforts to preserve nature. So, even though we travel does not mean we use everything contained in the tourist attraction environment without caring for and maintaining its function. Moreover, damage it. By caring for and maintaining tourist facilities and the natural tourism environment that we visit, it is a positive contribution as tourists to participate in preserving nature.   Thus a brief review of some tips that can be done during the tour to participate in protecting the environment and contribute to preserving the nature we live in together. Hopefully, this information is useful, and don't forget to listen to other travel articles on our page. Have a nice trip!

Five Myths of Forest Fires Almost Everybody Knew

When this forest fire raged in California, with thousands of emergency people displaced from their homes and dozens of people died.

Earlier this year, a series of forest fires on the coast of Greece killed 99 people. Then in July 2018, smoke from fires in Russia reached North America.

Some people might view the order of events as ordinary. But when the fires multiplied in all the world, there were also questions and misunderstandings about them.

Here are five common myths about forest fires - some of which can damage your success in fighting them.

Myth # 1: Regular logging can prevent forest fires

The general assumption is that logging, or removing many trees, will counteract fires. Many experienced forestries write ineffective logging.
This is because the remaining trees after logging, like stumps and twigs, become super-user fuel for fires - which are even drier (and easier to burn) without a forest canopy.

There are not a few scientific propositions that support this claim. For example, new research indicates that the severity of fuel wants to be higher in areas with more senior management levels.

Experiences working in the field of fire conservation have also broken the argument that logging protects species that are in danger of becoming extinct from forest fires, a general discussion that supports the removal of trees.

It seems that animals like iconic owls still use it from the burning forest, and the removal of trees can hurt them.

Logging after a fire is counterproductive and can result in fewer fires. A different practice is to clean all areas of the forest, a common approach used by firefighters to ward off spread fire.

Myth # 2: There is nothing you can do to protect your property

Forest fires are the most powerful and threatening, but the location of living stairs can minimize their risk by taking anticipatory measures at home. The building itself must be the first concern. Houses with fireproof roofs have more opportunities to survive the flames. The owner must also remove materials that are quickly burned from the structure, classified as leaves in gutters and roof lines.

Families can create a 'defense zone' between the location of their residence and the surrounding wilderness. This means washing everything that can burn, like a brush, dry leaves, and wood piles within 30 feet (9 m) of a residential building. That's why currently many casinos shifting to online mode and make the login easier, so they didn't worry about fire in their building, maybe only for the server security, but usually, there is a special treatment for server location.

When the distance is 30-100 feet (9-30m) from the house, the tree must have a large gap between the canopy - 12 feet (3.6 m) of space between the peaks between 30-60 feet (9-18m) from the house, and 6 feet (1.8 m) of use space tops that are 60 feet (18 m).

This disrupts the fire path and slows down the pace.

Myth # 3: Forest fires are an inevitable natural phenomenon

Forest fires are natural phenomena, but the level and intensity that occurs when this is not - and among the effects of climate evolution.
We witnessed more and fewer fires between 1930 and 1980, a period that coincided with a cooler and humid situation.

But because the climate has become hotter and drier in the past four decades, the number of fires has increased. Only in the two years between 1980 and 1999 did forest fires burn more than 6 million acres (2.4 million hectares) of US wilderness.

But between 2000 and 2017, there were ten years with land burning above that threshold. Globally, the duration of the fire season increased by almost 19% between 1978 and 2013.

Even though we cannot indicate climate change as the cause of a particular fire, it affects the factors that help trigger and spread fires, such as large droughts, high temperatures, low humidity, and strong winds.

As a result, all scientists wrote that the addition of forest fires in all the world, from Siberia to Portugal, was related to climate evolution.

Myth # 4: All forest fires are bad and must be put out immediately

Fires have played a crucial role in the ecosystem around thousands of years, and life has developed after a fire broke out:

Some beetles breed solely in the heat of a fire, pine cones sprout with periodic fires and washing space from burning trees makes it possible for new plants in the spring.

The uses that not a few people now expect to be reached by logging or forest management - the introduction of dense forests are naturally carried out by forest fires.

Fire routinely engulfs smaller branches and trees, eliminating forests that would otherwise not be useful as fuel.

By fighting endless forest fires about centuries ago, you have counteracted this 'cleansing': not enough of 1% of US fires were ignored.

This strategy works better when there are not many forest fires - but in our current fanatical condition, pumping less money to fight fires may have a reduced rate of return.

Myth # 5: It is possible to eradicate (or control) all forest fires

As we have seen, climate evolution, in addition to other factors such as the increasingly widespread human settlements, is thought to increase forest fires, especially at the upper-middle latitudes, in the coming decades.

The tropics may feel a decline in fires, which is a relief for countries around the equator. But the element of the world is different having to deal with the addition of the number of events.

Some fires, like California's wildfires, are too fast to handle. Evacuation and relocation is the only reasonable response.

This leads to the question of whether a community like Paradise, which is almost destroyed by fire, must remain in their location - or move to another location.

Some experience calls for a return to traditional knowledge to deal with the fire. Because efforts to burn fire appear to be inadequate - and the cause of fires is likely only to increase severely - that is the question that all policymakers must face.

When Antarctica is Filled with Wilderness

Ice, empty, isolated, cold.

These are many words commonly referred to as describe Antarctica, but the area is not just that.

There is a period where vast land in the southern element of the Earth is filled with forests and dinosaurs live freely.

But how can the wilderness with the ice mound have warm weather and support the life of this very large Earth creature?

To understand it, you must witness geological time. Antarctica is an ice-free region in the Cretaceous period, which stretched from 145 to 66 million years ago.

This period maybe very strange, but we can find out because this is the last period of the dinosaurs before the asteroids fell to Earth and burned them.

At this time, there was wilderness on two bodies of the Earth. The fossils of cold-blooded trees and reptiles that were found allowed all researchers to build a reflection of how the climate of those days.

Cold-blooded reptiles need warmth to survive; now we see them basking in the heat of the sun to warm themselves during the day. The importance is warm enough for them to survive in the dark

Scientists also use fossils of shelled animals that live in the sea that have the name foraminifera to know the past climate.

By examining the chemical elements in the shell and understanding the age intervals when the species are living opposite, they can obtain estimates of seawater temperature in that period.

Dr. Brian Huber of The Smithsonian Museum of Natural History investigated the Cretaceous period with special concentration at as many points in the deep sea during Antarctica.

He explained; "Foraminifera gives the best data because you can have both. Living things that live on the seabed live in sediments and record the temperature of the seabed, and then you get planktonic which lives in the top fifty meters of the ocean that records atmospheric temperatures.

"When we pair these records all the time and research shells from many parts of the ocean in all the world, we get the best proposal about climate change."

Huber explained that what they found in the Southern Ocean near Antarctica had been challenging to rely on because it was too warm; "We are pursuing temperatures of 30C at 58 degrees south," close to the Antarctic Circle.

This high temperature occurs around the middle of the Cretaceous, known as the 'Cretaceous Hothouse' - the location effect of staying hot glass caused by the addition of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

But what happened in the Cretaceous period to the point where trees and dinosaurs roamed Antarctica were not like barren ice fields today?

Huber explained; "What you know about the mid-Cretaceous in particular is that you have a much faster rate of seafloor spread and fewer CO2 volcanic sources."

Huber and his colleagues are still investigating whether 'greenhouses' occur as a result of large volcanic eruptions that produce CO2 and make blankets the location of glass that warms the earth.

Antarctica is an ice-free region in the Cretaceous period, which stretched from 145 to 66 million years ago

We all know that climate evolution has happened in the past, changes have taken place now and that will happen in the future, but what is the opposite of what you and I are doing now is compared with what happened in the past? Could Antarctica be a location without ice anymore?

"(Current climate change) is truly unprecedented, both in terms of speed and extent, compared to the geological events that you know from the past."

"We are releasing hundreds of billions of tons of CO2 into the atmosphere only in several decades. Volcanoes cannot produce the amount of CO2 in such short periods even if it is a large volcano," Huber said.

Regarding the future, Huber suggested; "I think what you will see in many decades, or perhaps centuries ahead, is what is called the flow of ice that begins to flow faster and can become West Antarctica especially starting to feel degradation."

"Given the rate of ice flow, you will not see [the whole] the Antarctic deteriorate in the next few decades."

Glaciologists estimate that once sea level rises, we begin to witness positive feedback where ice can flow faster, and sea levels rise faster, so it goes on. So yes I think the signs are already there. "

Dinosaurs no longer roam Antarctica again, but you can't rule it out, that Antarctica will be free of ice in the future. And you don't have the technique to understand how it feels for humans because we have never lived on Earth compilation there is no ice on the pole.