Earlier this year, a series of forest fires on the coast of Greece killed 99 people. Then in July 2018, smoke from fires in Russia reached North America.
Some people might view the order of events as ordinary. But when the fires multiplied in all the world, there were also questions and misunderstandings about them.
Here are five common myths about forest fires - some of which can damage your success in fighting them.
The general assumption is that logging, or removing many trees, will counteract fires. Many experienced forestries write ineffective logging.
This is because the remaining trees after logging, like stumps and twigs, become super-user fuel for fires - which are even drier (and easier to burn) without a forest canopy.
There are not a few scientific propositions that support this claim. For example, new research indicates that the severity of fuel wants to be higher in areas with more senior management levels.
Experiences working in the field of fire conservation have also broken the argument that logging protects species that are in danger of becoming extinct from forest fires, a general discussion that supports the removal of trees.
It seems that animals like iconic owls still use it from the burning forest, and the removal of trees can hurt them.
Logging after a fire is counterproductive and can result in fewer fires. A different practice is to clean all areas of the forest, a common approach used by firefighters to ward off spread fire.
Forest fires are the most powerful and threatening, but the location of living stairs can minimize their risk by taking anticipatory measures at home. The building itself must be the first concern. Houses with fireproof roofs have more opportunities to survive the flames. The owner must also remove materials that are quickly burned from the structure, classified as leaves in gutters and roof lines.
Families can create a 'defense zone' between the location of their residence and the surrounding wilderness. This means washing everything that can burn, like a brush, dry leaves and wood piles within 30 feet (9 m) of a residential building. That's why currently many casino shifting to online mode like agen sbobet, so they didn't worries about fire in their building, maybe only for the server security, but usually there is a special treatment for server location.
When the distance is 30-100 feet (9-30m) from the house, the tree must have a large gap between the canopy - 12 feet (3.6 m) of space between the peaks between 30-60 feet (9-18m) from the house, and 6 feet (1.8 m) of use space tops that are 60 feet (18 m).
This disrupts the fire path and slows down the pace.
Forest fires are natural phenomena, but the level and intensity that occurs when this is not - and among the effects of climate evolution.
We witnessed more and fewer fires between 1930 and 1980, a period that coincided with a cooler and humid situation.
But because the climate has become hotter and drier in the past four decades, the number of fires has increased. Only in the two years between 1980 and 1999 did forest fires burn more than 6 million acres (2.4 million hectares) of US wilderness.
But between 2000 and 2017, there were ten years with land burning above that threshold. Globally, the duration of the fire season increased by almost 19% between 1978 and 2013.
Even though we cannot indicate climate change as the cause of a particular fire, it affects the factors that help trigger and spread fires, such as large droughts, high temperatures, low humidity, and strong winds.
As a result, all scientists wrote that the addition of forest fires in all the world, from Siberia to Portugal, was related to climate evolution.
Fires have played a crucial role in the ecosystem around thousands of years, and life has developed after a fire broke out:
Some beetles breed solely in the heat of a fire, pine cones sprout with periodic fires and washing space from burning trees makes it possible for new plants in the spring.
The uses that not a few people now expect to be reached by logging or forest management - the introduction of dense forests are naturally carried out by forest fires.
Fire routinely engulfs smaller branches and trees, eliminating forests that would otherwise not be useful as fuel.
By fighting endless forest fires about centuries ago, you have counteracted this 'cleansing': not enough of 1% of US fires were ignored.
This strategy works better when there are not many forest fires - but in our current fanatical condition, pumping less money to fight fires may have a reduced rate of return.
As we have seen, climate evolution, in addition to other factors such as the increasingly widespread human settlements, is thought to increase forest fires, especially at the upper-middle latitudes, in the coming decades.
The tropics may feel a decline in fires, which is a relief for countries around the equator. But the element of the world is different having to deal with the addition of the number of events.
Some fires, like California's wildfires, are too fast to handle. Evacuation and relocation is the only reasonable response.
This leads to the question of whether a community like Paradise, which is almost destroyed by fire, must remain in their location - or move to another location.
Some experience calls for a return to traditional knowledge to deal with the fire. Because efforts to burn fire appear to be inadequate - and the cause of fires is likely only to increase severely - that is the question that all policymakers must face.
One of the urgent agenda of this work is the tree adoption program. Adoption of trees, in other words, donates as many funds to guard trees that have grown in the forest for decades. In addition to that, there is a fun run work which is running across the stadium as a participant symbol format for the preservation of trees and forests.
Co-founder of Hutan Itu Indonesia (HII) and Chief Executive of I Run to The Forest 2019, Rinawati Eko wrote that HII had a big dream so that everyone would like the forest as an Indonesian identity. Rinawati explained that I run into the forest is the program chosen to realize the dream, and the target is urban society.
I Run to The Forest 2019 tells anyone both runners and non-runners, young and old, to contribute directly to guarding Indonesia's forests with easy techniques, namely running. The activity with hashtag #KuLariKeHutan invited all participants to run as far as five kilometers to adopt one tree in Indonesia's forests.
Every participant who can take the five-kilometer track then will be converted to adopt one tree in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Adoption of forests is the movement of donating as much as funds to guard forests that are hundreds of years old.
"Why did you choose to run? Because when running on Sunday like CFD it has become a habit for urban communities, especially in Jakarta. And from here, you paste the message to guard the forest, "said Rina for High Field Foresty when she was visited at GBK, Central Jakarta, Sunday (6/30).
Rina added that the work gave up the challenge for runners to circle the trajectory of the GBK as a message symbol guarding the forest. The challenge of each runner traveling a distance of five kilometers or one round will be converted as the adoption of one tree to safeguard Indonesia's forests. (Read more: Can We Restore Damaged Forest Ecosystems?)
"Participants were challenged to run five kilometers and convert the adoption of one tree. "The more distance traveled by the participants, the less number of trees that have been adopted to guard Indonesia's forests," she said.
In the day's work, the farthest distance a participant can reach is 20 kilometers or four rounds, which are recorded by four runners. Aside from that, for participants who can take the first five kilometers, they will get an appreciation in the form of medals with basic ingredients of pallet waste and bracelets for each round.
For information, the Indonesian Forest (HII) is an uncovered movement created to transmit positive messages for the community to guard and protect Indonesia's forests. At present, HII has support from 40 partners spread across Indonesia and 400 volunteers.
These are many words commonly referred to as describe Antarctica, but the area is not just that.
There is a period where vast land in the southern element of the Earth is filled with forests and dinosaurs live freely.
But how can the wilderness with the ice mound have warm weather and support the life of this very large Earth creature?
To understand it, you must witness geological time. Antarctica is an ice-free region in the Cretaceous period, which stretched from 145 to 66 million years ago.
This period maybe very strange, but we can find out because this is the last period of the dinosaurs before the asteroids fell to Earth and burned them.
At this time, there was wilderness on two bodies of the Earth. The fossils of cold-blooded trees and reptiles that were found allowed all researchers to build a reflection of how the climate of those days.
Cold-blooded reptiles need warmth to survive; now we see them basking in the heat of the sun to warm themselves during the day. The importance is warm enough for them to survive in the dark
Scientists also use fossils of shelled animals that live in the sea that have the name foraminifera to know the past climate.
By examining the chemical elements in the shell and understanding the age intervals when the species are living opposite, they can obtain estimates of seawater temperature in that period.
Dr. Brian Huber of The Smithsonian Museum of Natural History investigated the Cretaceous period with special concentration at as many points in the deep sea during Antarctica.
He explained; "Foraminifera gives the best data because you can have both. Living things that live on the seabed live in sediments and record the temperature of the seabed, and then you get planktonic which lives in the top fifty meters of the ocean that records atmospheric temperatures.
"When we pair these records all the time and research shells from many parts of the ocean in all the world, we get the best proposal about climate change."
Huber explained that what they found in the Southern Ocean near Antarctica had been challenging to rely on because it was too warm; "We are pursuing temperatures of 30C at 58 degrees south," close to the Antarctic Circle.
This high temperature occurs around the middle of the Cretaceous, known as the 'Cretaceous Hothouse' - the location effect of staying hot glass caused by the addition of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
But what happened in the Cretaceous period to the point where trees and dinosaurs roamed Antarctica were not like barren ice fields today?
Huber explained; "What you know about the mid-Cretaceous in particular is that you have a much faster rate of seafloor spread and fewer CO2 volcanic sources."
Huber and his colleagues are still investigating whether 'greenhouses' occur as a result of large volcanic eruptions that produce CO2 and make blankets the location of glass that warms the earth.
We all know that climate evolution has happened in the past, changes have taken place now and that will happen in the future, but what is the opposite of what you and I are doing now is compared with what happened in the past? Could Antarctica be a location without ice anymore?
"(Current climate change) is truly unprecedented, both in terms of speed and extent, compared to the geological events that you know from the past."
"We are releasing hundreds of billions of tons of CO2 into the atmosphere only in several decades. Volcanoes cannot produce the amount of CO2 in such short periods even if it is a large volcano," Huber said.
Regarding the future, Huber suggested; "I think what you will see in many decades, or perhaps centuries ahead, is what is called the flow of ice that begins to flow faster and can become West Antarctica especially starting to feel degradation."
"Given the rate of ice flow, you will not see [the whole] the Antarctic deteriorate in the next few decades."
Glaciologists estimate that once sea level rises, we begin to witness positive feedback where ice can flow faster, and sea levels rise faster, so it goes on. So yes I think the signs are already there. "
Dinosaurs no longer roam Antarctica again, but you can't rule it out, that Antarctica will be free of ice in the future. And you don't have the technique to understand how it feels for humans because we have never lived on Earth compilation there is no ice on the pole.
With the help of technology and patience, as many programs can help the world's forests regain their right to life.
Half a millennium ago, forests covered the majority of the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. But the business changes rapidly. Wars and occupation of around hundreds of years, expanded agricultural expansion and logging for charcoal creation and export work have wiped out the majority of forests and transformed areas such as Matamorisca, a small village in Northern Spain, into a degraded landscape.
Areas with dry climates and barren land are a disaster response in a common home forest planting program. However, for Land Life Company companies based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, these characteristics are ideal conditions. "We often operate in a natural environment that cannot 'cure' itself," said Jurrian Ruys, the CEO. "We go to places with difficult weather conditions, with the hottest summer."
In Matamorisca, they worked on a 17-hectare barren land belonging to the regional government and showered it with their distinctive devices: biodegradable cardboard donuts which they called 'cocoons' which could hold 25 liters of underground water to help nurseries in the first year. About 16,000 oak, ash, walnut, rowan and whitebeam seedlings were planted in May 2018, and the company complained that 96% of them survived the burning summer without additional irrigation systems, indeed a spectacular achievement for young plants.
"Does nature go home by itself?" asked Arnout Asjes, head of technology at Land Life Company, who monitored drone and satellite images, big data analysis, soil repairs, QR affixing, and site-fit tree configuration designs. "It's possible, but it will take decades or even hundreds of years, so we are speeding up the process."
The Land Life Company is part of a global movement carried out by many organizations to strive to save degraded or deforested areas, from fertile tropical lowlands to dry hills in common areas. Encouraged by the loss of world biodiversity and climate evolution, these groups seek to push boundaries that hinder efforts to revive the forest home. "This is not a theoretical problem," said Walter Vergara, a forestry and climate expert from the World Resources Institute (WRI). "This requires the right incentives, the right stakeholders, the right analysis, and sufficient capital, but this can be done."
How these factors combine in a particular project - and whether securing forests that have been leveled with the land is possible - depending on what kind of ecosystem we choose. Secondary forests in the Amazon contradict pine forests in Texas that are in the process of recovering after forest fires. It also contradicts boreal timber forests which lie in the majority of Sweden. Each has a different factor for the reforestation program and has special needs that even contradict each other.
In a dry situation near Matamorisca and many other areas in Spain, the Land Life Company is concerned about the increasingly rapid desertification process. Because they focus on efforts to reverse an ecosystem, they collaborate with organizations that don't want their money to return.
By replanting 600 hectares in all the world since 2015 and 1,100 hectares planned to be implemented this year, the company's motivation is in line with the Bonn Challenge (Bonn Challenge), a global effort to reverse 150 million hectares of forest in the world that is deforested and degraded in 2020. That is equivalent to the size of Iran or Mongolia. In 2030, the target of a salvage area is desirable to reach 350 million hectares - 20% more than India.
These targets are classified as the process of forest rehabilitation which loses its density or looks weak (called 'restoration' in terms of forestry) and forest treatment efforts that are genuinely 'clean' (called 'reforestation').
The global target is then divided into smaller targets and is being implemented in Latin American countries called Prakarsa 20x20 (20x20 Initiative), a movement contributing to reversing 20 million hectares of the forest against global targets by accelerating small to medium scale projects with relying on political support from the government of each country.
Unlike the Land Life Company, these area-scale projects have economic and business consequences in reforestation efforts, even though they support biodiversity conservation. "You must be unique from the private sector," said Vergara, who led the initiative, "and the capital must generate dividends (Return On Investment / ROI)." A study conducted by Vergara indicated that the Latin American country would get a Present Net Value (NPV) for IDR 324.9 Trillion in 50 years if it reached its target.
Money can be obtained from selling wood in sustainably managed forests or harvesting 'non-timber products' like nuts, oil, and fruits from trees. we can write how little carbon dioxide is extracted by our forests and market carbon credits for companies that intend to change the carbon emissions losses they produce. Or we can even grow forests and aspire for biodiversity to become ecotourism that generates money from lodging costs, bird watching tours, and consumption.
But still, all the backers of the fund are not big banks. Funds for the 20x20 Initiative mostly come from financial organizations with three destinations - meager profits, benefits for the environment, and social use - known as impact-based investors.
Take, for example, German 12Tree funding, among 20x20 partners. They are working on investment of Rp134 billion in the Cuango, a property area of 1,455 hectares on the Caribbean coast of the country of Panama, which combines chocolate plantations with timber extraction from secondary forests that are managed sustainably. With these funds, they are reforesting cattle farms, creating quality jobs for the community as long as they are profitable.
Even on land purified decades later that has recently been used by farmers, some fields can grow next to the forest, if you find the right equilibrium. Even though technically it is not reforestation, agroforestry, aka forestry and agricultural plant cultivation, allows small farmers to be able to continue farming while increasing the area of forest in their fields.
A global project named Breedcafs analyzes how trees behave in the middle of coffee plantations, with destinations to pursue plant varieties that can grow well in the shadow of a canopy. Coffee grows naturally in such forests, so replicating the matter on the plantation is tantamount to bringing the plant back to its roots.
"By reintroducing trees in that landscape, you are giving a positive effect on humidity, the level of rain catches, land conservation, and biodiversity conservation," said coffee expert Benoît Bertrand of the French Agricultural Research Center for International Development (Cirad), who led the project. Bertrand examined dozens of coffee varieties, which were the most suitable for the system. The same treatment can be applied to plantations of chocolate, vanilla, and fruit trees.
Not all land can be reforested. Vergara partners explore safe investments, and even the Land Life Company itself only does big projects in countries where they are "low risks" values, like Spain, Mexico, or the United States. "We want to avoid large-scale operations in countries in several the Middle East or Africa where sustainability is not safe," Ruys said.
But in the right place, what you might need is time. In Central Pacific Costa Rica, the new 330 hectare National Wildlife Refuge did not look like in 1987 when the site became a cattle breeding field when Jack Ewing finally concluded to process the land into an ecotourism area. Instead of 'meddling' in juggling the fields, a friend told him not to care about nature working alone.
The grass that had previously covered the new land is now returning to become dense trees with secondary forests spreading over 150 hectares without human intervention. In the past ten years, howling monkeys, red macaws, and even mountain lions returned to the land, adding to tourism and reviving local ecosystems. Ewing, now 75, stated that the success was thanks to his colleague's remarks three decades ago: "In Costa Rica, when you stop taking care of bushes, the forest will return to answer revenge."
As a form of support for environmental conservation, the community independently provides dozens of types of seeds of economic value.
Andhika, a resident of Rawi Village, alluded to concerns that the use of forest land for non-productive plants would impact on deforestation. As an effort to reforest, he told the community to work to replant soil with productive timber plants.
The concept of empowerment for the preservation of forest areas is carried out in the forests of Gunung Rajabasa, Tanggamus protected forest area and the West Coast area. As a source of seeds, he spends a plant that is economically valuable and has ecological support.
Some plants that were developed are endemic vegetation which began to be rarely developed. Among them are candlenut, areca nut, jolang jaling, jengkol, petai, and as many productive crops. The concept of placing productive trees is intended so that people do not work on logging because they still get economic value.
"As socialization for the community, I emphasize the use of non-timber forest products so that plants remain sustainable, environmental conservation is maintained, and economic resources can still be obtained," said Andhika when visited by High Field Foresty on Wednesday (24/7/2019).
Andhika, who is one of the partners of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK), has prepared seedlings since 012. Many seeds were distributed to as many areas in Lamsel as West Coast, Tanggamus, even to Lampung, which needed reforestation plants. Since the beginning of 2012, at least 10 million have been distributed to conservation plant seeds.
Since March 2019, 3 million seeds have been prepared to plant many community forest areas. In addition to community forests, plantations, he also intensified efforts to plant environmental education institutions of the government and private parties who care about environmental conservation.
"In collaboration with rangers, efforts to guard the forest continue to be carried out by asking residents to place wood, may be collected from fruit, sap, but do not cut it down," said Andhika.
Productive plants such as resin, candlenut, jengkol, jolang jaling, petai are called good enough to absorb water. Having a high canopy creates this type of plant can be intercropped with cocoa, cloves which are also productive plants. Planting so many kinds of plants creates people who can get Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs). In addition to getting weekly, monthly, and water-absorbing trees, they can protect the environment from the weakness of water supply.
Yudi, among the managers of the tree seed nursery belonging to Andhika, alluded to the seeds being provided on a one-hectare land. All types of productive plant seeds are sown using compost. Pecan, mahogany, and areca plants are even grown without polybag media. The system for using husk, compost, and fertile soil makes the embryo grow with comprehensive care.
"Candlenut plants are prepared to reach the age of three months but look forward to the rainy season being planted," Yudi said.
Yudi assured when the rainy season's planting situation could be carried out. Many plant seeds are ordered by the community who will work on regeneration and diversion of plants. Some of the owners of teak gardens and medang chose to replace candlenut and areca plants. Because of the age of 5 to 6 years bear fruit. While these plant species bear seasonal fruit that can be harvested each time, besides having economic value, it can be used for environmental conservation.